included a study in which participants were asked to take notes by hand or by laptop, and were told they would be tested on the material in a week. . Move from a detailed to a general level of consideration that returns the topic to the context provided by the introduction. Top, writing the Introduction, in the introduction you will need to do the following things: present relevant background or contextual material define terms or concepts when necessary explain the focus of the paper and your specific purpose reveal your plan of organization, writing the Body. If the source of the advantage for longhand notes derives from the conceptual processes they evoke, perhaps instructing laptop users to draft summative rather than verbatim notes will boost performance. . In most typical college settings, however, internet access is available, and evidence suggests that when college students use laptops, they spend 40 of class time using applications unrelated to coursework, are more likely to fall off task, and are less satisfied with their education. . To evaluate this theory, Mueller and Oppenheimer assessed the content of notes taken by hand versus laptop. . Their studies included hundreds of students from Princeton and ucla, and the lecture topics ranged from bats, bread, and algorithms to faith, respiration, and economics. . These findings hold important implications for students who use their laptops to access lecture outlines and notes that have been posted by professors before class. . Consider the following questions: What is the topic?
How to Write a Research Paper (with Sample Research Papers)
Despite these instructions, students using laptops showed the same level of verbatim content and were no better in synthesizing material than students who received no such warning. . Gareth Cook, a Pulitzer prize-winning journalist and regular contributor. In real classroom settings, however, students are often assessed days if not weeks after learning new material. . It is possible these direct instructions to improve the quality of laptop notes failed because it is so easy to rely on less demanding, mindless processes when typing. Writing by hand is slower and more cumbersome than typing, and students cannot possibly write down every word in a lecture. . Start your paper with a thesis statement summing up your position, then support your statement with facts and arguments gathered from reputable sources. Obviously it is advantageous to draft more complete notes that precisely capture the course content and allow for a verbatim review of the material at a later date. . The research by Mueller and Oppenheimer serves as a reminder, however, that even when technology allows us to do my earliest memory narrative essay more in less time, it does not always foster learning. . Integrate your sources into your discussion. Revising the Final Draft, discovering, Narrowing, and Focusing a Researchable Topic. This page lists some of the stages involved in writing a library-based research paper. Revising the Final Draft Check overall organization: logical flow of introduction, coherence and depth of discussion in body, effectiveness of conclusion.