threatened by the political tendencie* of each successive age. And yet the result of all knowledge of this kind is uncertain, as far as per- petual peace is concerned. ; 9, 78,. No State at war with another shall adopt such modes of hostility as would necessarily render mutual confidence impossible in a future Peace; such as, the employment of Assassins (percussores) or Poisoners (venefici the violation of a Capitulation, the instigation of Treason and such like. It has been shewn, however, that there is little likelihood that this project actually originated with the king, who probably corresponded- fairly well to Voltaire's picture of him as war Hero of the Henriade. VII, 90, 91) it was no better than a state of nature. In the antagonism of nations, he saw nature's means of educating the race: it was a law of existence, a law of progress, and, as such, eternal. Maine, Henry; on Grotius and the Jus Gentium, 24,. And salt deserts which would other- wise be left unutilised have the camel, which seems as if created for travelling in such lands. Parallel to this ideal among the Greeks, we find the hope in Israel of a Messiah whose coming was to bring peace, not only to the Jewish race, but to all the nations of the earth.
He himself produces sixty-two arguments likely to be raised. Tr.) 142 Perpetual Peace erate slavery, yield no real profit, but only have their use indirectly and for no very praiseworthy object namely, that of furnishing men to be trained as sailors for the men-of-war and thereby contributing to the carrying on of war. So that their politic societies all began from a voluntary union, and the mutual agreement of men freely acting in the choice of their governors, and forms of government." Bluntschli points out (7'heory of the State.
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J Apptndix I vanity; whether they would be better governed under the sovereignty of a single individual or by the authority of several acting together; whether the combined authority might be better secured merely, say, by an official nobility or by the power of the. Nevertheless it is the desire of every state, or of its ruler, to attain to a permanent condition of peace in this very way; that is to say, by subjecting the whole world as far as possible to its sway. For the term "state" implies the relation of one who rules to those who obey that is to say, of lawgiver to the subject people : and many nations in one state would constitute only one nation, which contradicts our hypothesis, since here we have. We are obliged to keep them secret. "For as amongst masterless men, there is perpetual war, of every man against his neighbour; no inheritance, to transmit to the son, nor to expect from the father; no propriety of goods, or lands; no security; but a full and absolute liberty in every. For this reason, it is more difficult under an aristocracy than under a monarchy while under a democracy it is impossible except by a violent revolution to attain to this, the one perfectly lawful constitution. Such aa empire was, in the language of th Stoics, a world- 32 Perpetual Peace state in which all men had rights of citizenship, in which all other nations were absorbed. The romance and picturesque- ness with which it was invested in the days of hand-to-hand combat was gone. "AH lawful governments are republican." And in a footnote to this passage: "I do not by the word 'republic' mean an aristocracy or democracy only, but in general all governments directed by the public will which is the law. For, if a ruler is conscious of possessing irresistible sovereign power (and this must be assumed in every civil constitution, because a sovereign who has not power to protect any individual membtr 1 88 Perpetual Peace of the nation against his neighbour has also not. Were, on being discovered, looked upon as countries which belonged to no- body; for the native inhabitants were reckoned as nothing. M Nolo clericos essay on race relations in america ullo sanguine contaminari.
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